Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Case Analysis The House Of Lords - 1930 Words

Airedale26 case decided by the House of Lords, was followed in a number of cases in UK and it was pointed out that in the cases of incompetent patients, if doctors act on the basis of informed medical opinion, and withdraw the artificial life-support systems if it is in the patient s best interests, then they said action cannot be characterized as an offence under criminal law. 24 Joseph Fletcher Infanticide and the ethics of loving concern, 22 (1978). 25 JM Appel,Neo-natal Euthanasia: Why Require Parental Consent? Journal of Bioethical In 477 (2009). 26 Airedale NHS Trust v. Bland, 1993 (1) All ER 821 (HL). 51 In another case, Ward of Court, Re A27, the ward born in 1950, suffered irreversible brain damage as a result of anesthesia during 1972 and for several decades, the ward was invalid, the mother of the child was appointed in 1994 by the Court to be guardian of person and estate of the child and in 1995 she sought directions from the Court for withdrawal of all artificial nutrition and hydration and to give necessary directives as to the child s care. 2.1.3 Euthanasia in case of Mental Patients In re F (Mental Patient: Sterilization)28, the patient was not a minor, hence parens patriae jurisdiction was not available, but even so, applying the inherent power doctrine, the same test, namely, the test of best interest of the patient was applied by Lord Brandon of Oakbrook. Here the 36 years old woman was mentally handicapped and unable to consent toShow MoreRelatedMaking A New Law, The Midterm Process And The Legislative Process Essay1044 Words   |  5 Pagesthe committee reports back to the House on their amendment. The next stage is the Third Reading; this only happens if at least six MPs request it, and a final vote on the bill will be made. This process is then repeated in the House of Lords where they have a duty to scrutinise the bill before getting Royal Assent where the monarch will approve the Bill and it will become an Act of Parliament through the Lord Chancellor. However, it is possible for the House of Lords to refuse or make amendments toRead MoreModern Approac h For Liability Of The State, And Public Authorities1733 Words   |  7 PagesThe overarching guidelines to the modern approach to liability for negligence in tort go back to Donoghue v Stevenson [1932] with Lord Atkin setting out the ‘neighbour’ principle, such that one has a duty to take reasonable care to avoid acts or omissions which one can reasonably foresee would be likely to injure a neighbour (one who I ought reasonably have in contemplation as sufficiently close and directly affected by one’s act and omissions). However, the development of the common law approachRead MoreThe Between Parliament And The Executive Body1036 Words   |  5 Pagescontentious issue of how effectively the Parliament fulfils this role is still being debated. House of Commons The extreme theory of Parliamentary omnipotence was concisely re-stated by the Duke of Devonshire, on 5th September 1893, in a speech delivered in the House of Lords during the debates on the second Home Rule Bill. In the United Kingdom, said the Duke, Parliament (which for these purposes means the House of Commons) which is â€Å"supreme† not only in its legislative, but in its executive functionsRead MoreLord of the Flies Nature of Man1726 Words   |  7 PagesLord of the Flies: The Nature of Man William Golding’s Lord of the Flies is a gritty allegory of adolescence, innocence, and the unspoken side of human nature. Countless social issues are portrayed, however one of the most reoccurring is the nature of man. Throughout the novel there is an ever-present focus on the loss of innocence amongst the boys, shown by the deterioration of social skills and their retrogression into a barbaric form of society. Also portrayed is the juxtaposition of a cruelRead MoreThe Traditional View Of The Doctrine Of Parliamentary Supremacy1554 Words   |  7 Pages further, that no person or body is recognised by the laws of England as having a right to override or set aside the legislation of Parliament.† The Parliament which benefitted from unlimited legislative powers was made up of the Queen, House of Lord and House of Commons, hence there was negative and positive aspects to the principle of parliamentary supremacy. Positively, all Acts of Parliament would have to be obeyed by the courts. However, with regards to the negatives, it meant that â€Å"no personRead MoreApplication Of An Employers Liability1079 Words   |  5 Pagesdeals with the breach of obligations agreed by the parties when entered into the contract. Before the House of Lords in Spring v Guardian Assurance plc and others recognised the suitability of pursuing a negligence action for a poor reference the only option of an employee to seek remedy was through an action in tort for defamation which the success depended on proof of malice. In Spring, Lord Keith rejected liability of employers for references in tort of negligence. One of his arguments was basedRead MoreThe Law Of The United Kingdom1021 Words   |  5 PagesThis essay will elaborates the law making system in the United Kingdom, whilst consider the role of the House of Commons, The House of Lords and the Monarch in the law making process. In order to analysis the law making process, those content, which will be provided, are the different types of the bill and the primary legislation and secondary legislation and each of them will has the references. The different bills are included the Public bills, Private bills, Hybrid bills and Private Members’ billsRead MoreCommon Law And Equity Law1360 Words   |  6 Pagesand 13th century, a survey was conducted on tradition, custom and law under the common law system of England. This survey originally developed as court decisions. In England, the equity laws are developed after the creation of the common law. The analysis based on development of justice and is now used in the royal courts. This gives us the story of the 1066 when the England was attacked and concluded that there is no common law system, but the local court system. It is called the power of traditionalRead MoreCommon Law And Equity Laws1381 Words   |  6 Pagescommon law and equity laws are developed after the creation of the common law; the analysis based on justice launched and is now used in the royal courts. This gives us the story of the day capital in 1066 as the winner attacked in England and concluded that there is no common law system, but the local court system. It is called the power of traditional dishes such as Shires, counties and hundreds, and laws and customs cases. The foundations of the common law have known in public as customary law. InRead MoreThe Common Law System Of England1354 Words   |  6 Pagesand 13th century, a survey was conducted on tradition, custom and law under the common law system of England. This survey originally developed as court decisions. In England, the equity laws are developed after the creation of the common law. The analysis based on development of justice and is now used in the royal courts. This gives us the story of the 1066 when the England was attacked and concluded that there is no common law system, but the local court system. It is called the power of traditional

Friday, May 15, 2020

Tracking Pba Schedule - 692 Words

INTRODUCTORY SUMMARY In the past two years, our company has consistently missed the release dates for our PBA (printed board assembly) products. These missed releases have resulted in fines to the company, and extreme customer dissatisfaction. We have had to reduce our workforce considerably over the past year, and in the process, we have lost experienced employee talent. Middle management has accepted the challenge to develop a PBA Design to Release Spreadsheet. This spreadsheet process will assist our Research and Development organization in achieving the company’s goal to honor its contractual obligations to customers. Since budget cuts are in place, the spreadsheet will be developed based on existing resources and work force.†¦show more content†¦Once each group has agreed upon their responsibilities, the Team Lead will present the list to the Core Team. In the past, when this kind of information has been collected, the biggest concern expressed from all of the groups is the limited amount of time they have to complete their job efficiently. Their main concern is limited personnel and resources. This spreadsheet tracking process will present a â€Å"work culture† challenge in the way our teams approach their tasks. CORE TEAM REVIEWS EACH GROUP’S DEFINITION OF DUTIES After each group has completed their list of tasks and timelines, the Core Team reviews the combined results. The Core Team’s goal is to evaluate the lists, and incorporate them into the final spreadsheet. The spreadsheet will define the fundamental duties and timelines to complete for each group. The ultimate goal is to get the product to the customer within eight months. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The logical approach is to start to perform the design work in â€Å"parallel† across groups, when practical. This practice of â€Å"concurrent engineering† is commonly used by understaffed, schedule-driven companies. Using this method, each group can be working on their portion of the design, without having to wait for the previous group to complete their portion. When the schedule of the PBA release has been established, an excel spreadsheet is generated with each participant’s responsibilities and timelines.Show MoreRelatedPremuim Hair Care Llc Business Plan8525 Words   |  35 PagesPerformance Indicators - KPIs Branding Marketing Brand Positioning Marketing Financial Structure Organization Deal Structure Assumptions Financial Model Proforma Return Exit Strategy Next Steps Appendix Store Investment Store Proforma Store Opening Schedule by Market Financial Proforma (Sources and Uses) Master Franchise Agreement Options Agreement PHC Operating Agreement PPM 3 4 5 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 12 13 14 14 15 16 17 20 21 22 23 23 24 26 27 27 29 30 31 31 32 32 II. III. IV. V. IV

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Common Weaknesses and Attacks Associated with E-Commerce...

Common weaknesses and attacks associated with e-commerce and social networking applications Security of transactions is critical in building the confidence of customers in a specified e-commerce site. This security depends heavily on an organization s ability to ensure authenticity, availability, privacy, integrity and disruption of unwanted intrusions. Malicious program known as sniffer programs often disrupt the privacy transactions especially when one uses unauthorized networks. They are found at network connection end points. When transactions are carried out, confidentiality is necessary thus it requires removing of any data showing transaction paths. This has become a common problem in the e-commerce sites. Another particularly†¦show more content†¦Roles such as system administrator, developer, security engineer, and quality assurance analyst for each classification The following are the roles of individuals in the IT department: The system administrator will monitor performance of systems and provide security measures such as troubleshooting and maintenance. He will also help users to diagnose and solve their problems. He will be involved in adding, deleting or modifying user account information and resetting passwords. He will design and put into place systems, network configurations and network architecture. The system developer will analyze requirements for all users in the company including clients. He will research, design and write new programs for the company. The developer will also test new programs and find their weaknesses. He will be responsible for evaluating software and systems running in computers. He will also develop existing programs through analysis and identify modification areas The security engineer will install and manage an organization’s security systems across its network. He will also monitor and react to their output. The quality assurance analyst should be knowledgeable in SQL, HTML, and XML and internet browsers since they will be in charge of ensuring security in the browsing programs used. He should be proficient in web-based and database applications since he will be the one in charge of tracking information of clients. HeShow MoreRelatedEssay on Final Project2965 Words   |  12 PagesSecurity for Web Applications and Social Networking Graded Assignments: Project Project Project Title Transforming to an E-Business Model Purpose This project provides you an opportunity to assume a specific role in a business situation. You then apply the competencies gained in this course to develop a solution for a business problem related to an organization’s transformation to an e-business model. Learning Objectives and Outcomes You will be able to: Gain an overall understandingRead MoreNetwork Security And Management Policy3822 Words   |  16 Pagessystem or network, its information, resources, and its immediate infrastructure. The topics are the overview of Web services, social engineering, system components, architecture, protocols, future security trends, security vulnerabilities programs, the evolution of network security, internet vulnerabilities, online security and the protection of civil rights, practical attacks on mobile cellular networks and possible countermeasures, analysis of network security policy-based management, the risks andRead MoreHow Identity Theft Affect the Culture of Our Society5785 Words   |  24 Pagespractices. In 1935, the Social Security Act led to the creation of the Social Security numbering system. The more recent forms of identity theft came about in the early 1950s when credit cards first made an appearance, but credit was more difficult to obtain. To access credit in those days, applicat ions were always made in person and you were required to produce picture identification such as a passport and a social security card. Unlike today, where you could fill out an application for some form of creditRead MoreOnline Banking42019 Words   |  169 PagesInternet Banking Table of Contents Chapter–1– Introduction 0 Chapter–2– Internet Banking a new medium 7 Chapter--3 - International experience 19 Chapter -4 -The Indian Scenario 33 Chapter- 5- Types of risks associated with Internet banking 41 Chapter- 6- Technology And Security Standards For Internet - Banking 49 Chapter -7 - Legal Issues involved in Internet Banking 74 Chapter- 8- Regulatory and supervisory concerns 84 Chapter–9 - Recommendations 98 Annexure 1 111 Annexure 2 112 Read MoreThe Yahoo Case Essay4865 Words   |  20 Pagesadvantage. * Improving its technology (search engine optimization, Video-advertising capabilities). * Responding to the customers’ needs. Introduction and company overview Introduction Yahoo Inc is a â€Å"Global internet communications, commerce and media company that that offers a comprehensive branded network of services (†¦) worldwide†. Although the company is headquartered in Sunnyvale, California, US, its activities have been replicated in 18 portals and 12 languages around the worldRead MoreMobile Phone Has Turned Into The Eye Catching Business For Criminals5499 Words   |  22 Pagesabilities of smart phones. The primary issue is identified with the joining of various wireless interfaces. Here, an attack brought out through the wireless network interface might in the end give access to the cell phone utility. This kind of attack can bring about major harm in light of the fact that a few services charge the userbased on the traffic. We have made a proof-of-idea attack to demonstrate the feasibility of such assaults. To address these security issues, we have composed and implementedRead MoreManagement and Business22027 Words   |  89 Pagesnetworks while walking down a hallway or eating lunch. Further, for some individuals, their social life is facilitated by or completely dependent upon IT. Cell phones, text messages, blogs, social networking websites, emails, web cams, online games, virtual worlds, and other forms of digital communication have become more pervasive in recent years and have replaced some face-to-face social interaction. 3. What kinds of portable IT can help employees work more efficiently and effectivelyRead MoreOdor Beaters Athletic Shoes3086 Words   |  12 Pagessporting shoes are sold by major package channels, with catalogs and etailers selling about 6% of the market (Packaged Facts, 2009). However, regardless of the channel, the style, the material, the padding, or the other amenities, all footwear shares one common negativity foot odor. This odor, caused by the bodys sweat glands and bacteria, is amplified during high levels of sporting activity and perspiration. At present, there is no direct competition for an odorless shoe out of the box. Instead, as weRead MorePrinciples of Information Security, 4th Ed. - Michael E. Whitman Chap 0118683 Words   |  75 PagesLicensed to: CengageBrain User Licensed to: CengageBrain User Principles of Information Security, Fourth Edition Michael E. Whitman and Herbert J. Mattord Vice President Editorial, Career Education Training Solutions: Dave Garza Director of Learning Solutions: Matthew Kane Executive Editor: Steve Helba Managing Editor: Marah Bellegarde Product Manager: Natalie Pashoukos Development Editor: Lynne Raughley Editorial Assistant: Jennifer Wheaton Vice President Marketing, Career Education TrainingRead MoreManaging Information Technology (7th Edition)239873 Words   |  960 Pages CONTENTS: CASE STUDIES CASE STUDY 1 Midsouth Chamber of Commerce (A): The Role of the Operating Manager in Information Systems CASE STUDY I-1 IMT Custom Machine Company, Inc.: Selection of an Information Technology Platform CASE STUDY I-2 VoIP2.biz, Inc.: Deciding on the Next Steps for a VoIP Supplier CASE STUDY I-3 The VoIP Adoption at Butler University CASE STUDY I-4 Supporting Mobile Health Clinics: The Children’s Health Fund of New York City CASE STUDY I-5

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Drake Concert World Music Essay Example For Students

Drake Concert World Music Essay Concert The energy and vibe at the Drake concert was so live and intense. The vitality of the crowd was very immense. Although he is known as Drake, the superstar singer, rapper, songwriter and composers birth name is Aubrey Drake Graham. Mostly famous for writing flirtatious songs to attract the attention of many female celebrities, Drake offers a new artistic wrinkle in comparison to Masc. who can only rhyme. Beyond being able to carry a note and his lyrical dexterity, its the directness and interpolation that underlines Drakes words that implement him to associate with fans on a more profound level. And that is typically what his musical selections varied from; songs that revolved around the expression of his feelings. His first mistake, So Far Gone was a temperamental collection of tracks that discloses the anecdote of his ascent into adulthood. Girl troubles, pains of growing and uncertainty are the emotions apprehended on the set. It was a rare craft and as he and producer Noah Siebel sampled from many well-known rap tracks and ambiguous hipster mounds to create a pop shine that was observable for the masses. And the other albums, Thank Me Later, Take Care and Nothing Was the Same were his glorified pieces of work that gracefully displayed his feelings and I could here every heart felt emotion in the lyrics. The dancers on stage were so energetic and so engrossed in the performance that by looking at them you could literally feel how hard their heart was beating because you would be breaking a sweat too from dancing to the beat. As for Drake, when he would sing a high-tempo song such as Headlines, everyone would e dancing to the beat so aggressively because that song got their adrenaline going. Other slow and mellow songs like Over my Dead Body and Margins Room, Drake slowed down the tempo and his demeanor on stage was very sensual and seductive that it still had a majority of the females in awe and their adrenaline rushing. The way Drake would transition from fast to slow songs gave the audience a chance to flow with performance, while at the same time being prepared to Jump up and down to the beat when the high tempo songs would come on. The balance of the paces was incredible because you literally could tell he was putting everything in it because the singing and performing effort did not change. There were not any other performers on stage with him besides the hype man, but their interaction with each other were dynamic because they were able to accompany the crowd into the songs. Before some songs, Drake would ask the females how their relationships were, then transition into a heart-felt song concerning relationships and grabbing the attention of an intimate partner. His body language was typically in a strong, masculine posture that did not show any forms of weakness. Drakes body language also showed some sensual moments when he would do some of the seductive dance Drake Concert World Music Paper 2 By anger on the hand. His whole demeanor gave off a very intimate and sexual vibe that aroused the many female fans in attendance. The d ©core, lighting and venue really set the mood for this concert. When songs were upbeat, the lights would go crazy by flickering, change color and distinguish in shapes between circles and lines. When songs were downbeat, the soft colors would appear and the patterns of the lights would not be as intense as it would if an upbeat song was playing. Whether the lights were on or off, the energy and focus of the crowd did not change one bit and the arena was full of life. As far as my ethnographic observations go, I learned that the words and beats of his music serves as a message and he wanted to send this message of love and affection to everyone who was willing to hear. I felt the audience was also very open in receiving his message because they would sing the songs as Drake would sing it as if it were one big karaoke bar. There also was an expression of emotion they had on their face was a perfect description of the meaning of the words hat he sang in his songs. .u98dae3a27fa031d957744a87947ac19b , .u98dae3a27fa031d957744a87947ac19b .postImageUrl , .u98dae3a27fa031d957744a87947ac19b .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u98dae3a27fa031d957744a87947ac19b , .u98dae3a27fa031d957744a87947ac19b:hover , .u98dae3a27fa031d957744a87947ac19b:visited , .u98dae3a27fa031d957744a87947ac19b:active { border:0!important; } .u98dae3a27fa031d957744a87947ac19b .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u98dae3a27fa031d957744a87947ac19b { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u98dae3a27fa031d957744a87947ac19b:active , .u98dae3a27fa031d957744a87947ac19b:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u98dae3a27fa031d957744a87947ac19b .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u98dae3a27fa031d957744a87947ac19b .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u98dae3a27fa031d957744a87947ac19b .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u98dae3a27fa031d957744a87947ac19b .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u98dae3a27fa031d957744a87947ac19b:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u98dae3a27fa031d957744a87947ac19b .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u98dae3a27fa031d957744a87947ac19b .u98dae3a27fa031d957744a87947ac19b-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u98dae3a27fa031d957744a87947ac19b:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: How Bill Gates Changed The WorldWhen I was observing, I felt that the audience was in a trance, but at the same time experiencing the same emotion he felt when writing it himself. My own preconceptions did not really affect my research and listening experience when I went to this concert. I listen to Drake a lot and I love his well rounded, and ability to be lyrically agile. If I have never heard a certain artist or song, then I would be open to listen to it but if do not like it then I will not be listening to that particular artist or song anymore. As a performer, I did not have the same type f audience to entertain and interact with like Drake, but I did have a lot of interaction from the audience when I would perform. There was plenty of positive energy that made it easier for me to sing songs without holding anything back and produce a tremendous sound. Being able to compare and contrast my experience as a performer and member in the audience was very good. By attending this concert, it allowed me to see many differences in an amateur and professional performance, but at the same time have a great time being involved in a research I had a blast taking part in.

Monday, April 13, 2020

Free Speech Essays - Journalism Sourcing, , Term Papers

Free Speech The first amendment to the constitution guarantees the right of free speech and of the press. Unfortunately, some individuals have used this right to protect themselves from litigation when they produce material that is pornographic, hateful or when they use ethically questionable methods when reporting a story. The government has attempted to intervene through passing laws and imposing regulations. The problem with placing restrictions on free speech is that the question of who will decide what is appropriate and what is not will inevitably be raised. There are two positions when debating this issue : 1) protect free speech even though some people abuse it or 2) freedom of speech does not outweigh the need for ethical principles. Two of the ethical dilemmas facing the media today are the conflicts of freedom of the press versus individual rights, and the right of the press to refuse to reveal their sources. The media has often claimed that the public has a right to know but they do not limit that right to know to a certain area of public concern. Reporters have written stories on the sexual lives of movie stars claiming public interest but simply because the public is curious does not mean they have a right to know. Certainly, most people would not want their entire life story being printed as public knowledge and subject to ridicule. The issue of privacy was brought to the forefront by the untimely demise of Princess Diana. She was being chased by reporters who had been following her all night when she was involved in the car accident that killed her. Many people then criticized the press who had been following her all night. Does the media have the right to follow and harass people simply on the basis that they are public figures or do public figures deserve to have a private life? The issue of revealing sources has been debated for years, particularly after the Watergate scandal of the seventies. Recently an issue regarding the confidentiality of a source arose but for a different reason. Dan Cohen is sued two newspapers for breach of contract because they promised him confidentiality when he provided them with information. After they had received the information the newspapers decided that the information reflected more on Cohen and proceeded to print the information with Cohen's name. Cohen won the suit but the damage to his reputation was already done. Those are only two of the many issues involved in free speech. Ethical restraint would set guidelines for journalists and protect individual rights. The first issue would be to set objective and universal guidelines so that there would be no debate over who sets the ethical code. The problem would be enforcing these guidelines. The Radio Television News Directors Association and the Society of Professional Journalists both have ethical codes, which include respecting those whom you are reporting about and keeping confidentiality. Those ethical standards are not enforced and so some do not follow them. Some people believe in free speech at all costs. Free speech without restraint causes public outcry and violates people's civil rights like their right to privacy. The difficulty is that people see any form of restraint as censorship and then claim that the government will begin running our lives and making our decisions. If the ethical standards agreed upon were universal they would satisfy everyone and if the journalists would follow them there would be no need for government intervention. Using the example of Dan Cohen's issue of confidentiality the ethics of the reporters involved can be analyzed. The act of printing his name, in and of itself, was not wrong. The intention of the journalists was to inform the public since Cohen was associated with a politician who was running for governor and the information Cohen had was on the opposing candidate. The circumstances were the gubernatorial race was in its final days. The reporters had the right to accept and publish the information since it was public record and did not violate the rights of the opposing candidate. They exercised their right to free speech and of the press in that respect. The ethical issue was whether the reporters violated Cohen's rights when they broke their promise of confidentiality and printed his name with the article. The question then would be should they have printed his name? Following Aristotle's ethical theory of the golden mean, the journalists were wrong. The extreme one side would have been to print his name while the extreme on the other side would

Wednesday, March 11, 2020

Essay on Are People Selfish

Essay on Are People Selfish Essay on Are People Selfish? Essay on Are People Selfish?As a matter of fact, scientists wonder whether selfishness or altruism drive human evolution and give arguments in favor and against it. Evolutionary theorists concentrated mainly on competition, natural selection and selfishness, but couldn’t deny one evident fact that humans would not be able to survive in nature without social reciprocity, communication and cooperation.Recent research proves that evolution favors cooperation, while selfishness never brings long-term success, it requires cooperation. The recent discovery conflicts with the Zero-Dominant theory that provides selfish players a guaranteed way to beat cooperative ones. Zero-Dominant theory offers advantages to the selfish when they are against the cooperative players. Otherwise, it won’t work. In Ayn Rand’s novel Atlas Shrugged we read that human nature is fundamentally selfish and every one exists only for his own sake. Modern studies show, however, that humans and anim als are unable to evolve in cooperative environment by being selfish, that challenges a previous theory justifying selfish behavior. It has been estimated that children have innate desire for equity and are less selfish than often considered. Experiments show that toddlers will help adults without being asked to do so. It also contradicts with Charles Darwin’s theory of natural selection that presents individuals as selfish, on the one hand, and on the other hand, UK scholar considers that Darwin himself was puzzled with cooperation he observed in nature, especially by social insects. Natural disasters like earthquakes or tsunami are a vivid example of heroism, altruism and sharing of resources. Human stress systems are designed to connect to others, while even short-term isolation may be destructive. US researchers who worked out a model of the well-known prisoner’s dilemma game demonstrated the reasonability of cooperation that we observe in the animal kingdom, micro bial world and in humans. That is communication is the key reason of cooperation, only doing so people will eventually be more successful. Studying social distance and other-regarding behavior scholars worked with dictator and ultimatum games and noticed that in history everything was commonly shared and distributed equally between members of a community.   Thus, they claim society follows the principle of reciprocal altruism, sharing traditions in terms of private costs that reinforce reciprocal actions. They suppose that individuals bring their personal life experiences into the experiment and as the anonymity or social isolation decreases the offer distributions also diminish. Social distance importance is evident and people appear to value social interaction with others when making decisions. Thus, not all act in their self-interest. Only in complete isolation researchers trace strictly self-interest behavior. They consider that dictator an ultimatum games should be modeled in terms of implicit and explicit expectations. Other-regarding preferences are found to have a social, what-do-others-know component. So, the presence of the experimenter reduces the incidence of self-regarding behavior. Behavior is considerably determined with what others may think, thus can be called a form of social exchange.Though, people are said to be inherently selfish since it has always been their defense mechanism, for today’s society selfishness does no good. So, people being social creatures group together in families, tribes, nations and social traits are considered to be best rational policies. Only having learned to work as a team they will be able to communicate more effectively, that will in its turn bring us long-term results and make the world a better place to live in.

Monday, February 24, 2020

Diversity and Equality in Organizations Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words

Diversity and Equality in Organizations - Essay Example It depends upon management that how they convert those conflicts into cohesiveness and benefit the organization. Diversity is directly pertinent to creativity however; poor management of this does not only takes out creativity of the organization but also brings inequality. When an organization possesses diversity, it is very important for the management to organize it with equality if it wants to acquire its full benefits. When people belong to same background, have same age, possess similar qualifications and skills they have lesser conflicts and more cohesiveness (Agarin & Brosig, 2009, pp. 160-350). Nevertheless, this cohesiveness fails to bring creativity. This happens because they indirectly belong to the same group but when people have diverse background, different ages, and different levels of qualification, it becomes very difficult for them to accept each other. It is a very common phenomenon because even siblings in a house, who belong to same parents, take a lot of time t o accept each other then how can one expect from people who belong to diverse backgrounds to accept each other without conflicts. Due to these conflicts, many organizations refuse to implement diversity in their workplace, which does not create room for innovation in their organization. One thing that needs clarification is the difference between diversity and discrimination. Many organizations unintentionally promote discrimination instead of diversity. Discrimination is present in many forms, which are age, gender, race, disability, marriage, pregnancy etc. This report discusses each of these forms in detail. One form of discrimination that is very common in underdeveloped countries of the world is unfair attitude towards women. Many woman are discriminated if they are pregnant, employers directly discriminate women by asking them to leave their jobs if they want to have maternity leaves. However, organizations also discriminate indirectly so that they do not come under any legal prosecution for implementing inequality. Some times while communicating requirements of a job, organizations state that whoever applies for this job should be able to work for longer hours away from home (Bach, 2005, pp. 56-240). It is obvious that married women are unable to give longer hours away from home as they have to take care of their children and family. Even, unmarried women sometimes cannot give longer hours due to some restrictions. One cannot deny that for some jobs like salespersons’ job, it is very necessary to communicate these requirements. However, if an employer states these requirements just not to attract the women, it is unfair. Apart from these issues, discrimination also lies based on unequal distribution of pay to men and women. Salary does not only include the amount of money given to employees at the end of each month but also fringe benefits like provision of vehicle, utility services, domestic assistance services, medical allowances, entertainment allowances, travel allowances, holidays and the like. Even if men and women get the same amount of money but they get unequal fringe benefits they are discriminated. However, sometimes giving equal benefits is also unfair because men and women possess different set of needs therefore companies should try to first analyze those needs and give benefits accordingly (Bell, 2011, pp. 200-500). Organizations offer various pay